Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено.

e.g. 1. The cans, properly filled and sealed, 2. The cans were properly filled and sealed, 3. After the cans were properly filled and sealed, and then sterilized. (1) they were sterilized. (2) were then sterilized. (3)
1 – 3; 2 – 1; 3 – 2

A. 1. Bread was мейд of barley flour, 2. Bread, мейд of barley flour, 3. When bread was мейд of barley flour Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено., was heavy. (1) it was heavy. (2) so it was heavy. (3)
B. 1. The thermometer used in the 16th century 2. In the 16th century the thermometer used alcohol 3. The thermometer was used as the liquid in the tube. (1) as early as the 16th century. (2) contained alcohol as the liquid in the tube. (3)
C Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено.. 1. Some physical properties expressed quantitatively 2. Some physical properties were expressed quantitatively 3. As some physical properties were expressed quantitatively and were used by chemists to identify substances. (1) were used by chemists to identify substances. (2) they were used by chemists to identify substances. (3)
D.1. The decimal system of weights and Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. measures proposed in France 2. The decimal system of weights and measures was proposed in France 3. When the decimal system of weights and measures was proposed in France it was named the metric system. (1) was named the metric system. (2) and was named the metric system. (3)
E. 1. Alchemy was Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. studied widely in Europe in the 12th century 2. Alchemy studied widely in Europe in the 12th century 3. As alchemy was studied widely in the 12th century attracted the attention of many learned men. (1) and attracted the attention of many learned men. (2) it attracted the attention of many learned men. (3)
F Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено.. 1. The alchemists were doomed to failure in their efforts to make gold, 2. The alchemists doomed to failure in their efforts to make gold 3. Though the alchemists were doomed to failure in their efforts to make gold were none the less learned men. (1) they were none the less learned men. (2) but they Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. were none the less learned men. (3)
G. 1. Different methods used for making beer 2. Different methods were used for making beer 3. As different methods were used to make beer they affected its taste. (1) affected its taste. (2) and affected its taste. (3)

Задание 13. Прочитайте тексты и ответьте на вопросы после Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. их

«Yes» либо «No» (время ограничено).

1. Since Mendeleev formulated the principles of classifying chemical elements and published his periodic table chemists have begun looking for new elements. Many elements have already been discovered and this process is going on. But the last natural element was introduced into the table Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. many years ago. The elements discovered in recent years are never found in nature. They are received in laboratories and are very short–lived.

1. Have all the elements been discovered already?

2. Are chemists trying to formulate the principles of classifying chemical elements?

3. Were all the natural elements discovered many years ago Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено.?

2. Until the end of the 19th century there was no satisfactory way of shaping loaves by machinery: all the machines devised had treated the dough too severely and upset its rather delicate stability.

A successful machine invented at the beginning of the 20th century has now been Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. improved upon, and there are few large bakeries where loaves are still shaped by хэнд. In fact, most processes in the industry are now fully mechanized. And as the next step engineers are trying to introduce automatic lines into bakeries.

1. Have engineers already mechanized the process of shaping loaves?

2. Were the Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. attempts to invent a good machine for shaping loaves in the 19th century successful?

3. Are engineers working now at mechanizing operations in the baking industry?

3. Pasteur’s theoretics were applied to many problems in the food industry, during his lifetime and later. Pasteurization is heating food to the Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. point and only to the point where spoilage organisms and enzymes are partially destroyed. It has long been applied to stabilizing wine and beer. Pasteurized milk has revolutionized the fresh milk industry during the 20th century and it is also used to extend the shelf-life of cheese, ice-cream, eggs Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено., vinegar, caviar and a number of other products.

1. Are Pasteur’s discoveries still important in the food industry?

2. Has milk been the only product pasteurized since pasteurization came into use?

3. Is pasteurization the process of complete destruction of microorganisms by heat treatment?

4. The preservation of foodstuffs by Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. the application of heat has probably been practiced by man as long as fire has been known.

Pasteurization derives its name from the prominent French scientist, Louis Pasteur, who, during his studies in the years 1860 – 1870, found that heating liquids, especially wines, to a temperature such as 140ºF improved their keeping Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. qualities. Pasteurization came into use on a commercial scale in Denmark and in Germany shortly after 1880. In 1883 Jacobi in New York heated milk for babies momentarily to 212ºF. About the same time, pasteurizing equipment imported from Germany began to be used in commercial pasteurizing tests Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено.. In the beginning there was much opposition to heat treatment of milk but the greatly improved health of children resulted in general acceptance of the process. And pasteurization has become a widely used process of milk preservation. Now scientists are working at new techniques of pasteurization, such as electrical pasteurization and Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. so on.

1. Was milk the first food pasteurized?

2. Have scientists already developed all methods of pasteurization?

3. Does pasteurization improve the keeping qualities of foods?

Задание 14. Прочитайте текст и суммируйте, под воздействием каких причин может устанавливаться режим приема еды.

MEALS

To break bread with a man and to share Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. his salt were once actual ceremonies that established friendship. Meals are more than the occasions for consuming food. They are social events and symbols of hospitality. By custom special meals celebrate family events, such as a coming-of-age or marriage, and State events.

Meals have often been the means of Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. showing the generosity and wealth of their donor. Largesse in the form of a splendid meal was once expected of men in important position and they, in response, risked ruin in their desire to impress. When Archbishop Nevill was installed at York in 1467 he gave a feast to all who Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. could come. Among the fare were: 330 tuns (large casks) of ale and 100 of wine, 104 oxen, 6 wild bulls, 1,000 sheep, 2,000 geese, 13,500 miscellaneous small birds, 1,500 dishes of jelly. The great feasts of the 12th to the 16th centuries were popular not only for the food but as great occasions Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. of social intercourse and entertainment.

The nature of meals varies between town and country, for the rhythm of farm life imposes its own meal times. Among town-dwellers part of England waits for dinner while the rest is eating high tea. Meal times vary from country to country and have also Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. changed from period to period. The following is an account of the changing fashions of meal times among well-to-do English people.

Dinner, the main meal of the day, was at 11 a.m. in the 16th century, but towards the end of the century it was beginning to take Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. place rather later. In an article in the Taller in 1710, Steele noted that “in my own memory the dinner has crept by degrees from twelve o’clock to three”. By the late 18th century it had moved on to 5 p.m., though many families clung to an earlier Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. hour. By 1800, 7 p.m. was fashionable, but the hour remained a matter of wide choice, some dining at 5, others perhaps at 7.30 p.m. By the 1850s, 7-8 p.m. became a more standard hour, and dinner has remained so ever since.

In the 16th century supper was taken at 5.30 p Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено..m. and was a lighter form of dinner. In the 18th century, when dinner was at 4 p.m., supper retreated to 10-11 p.m., and consisted of cold meats, sweets, fruit and wine – to which hot dishes might be added if there was company. But by the 19th century when Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. a full late dinner was served, supper disappeared. As it vanished, luncheon appeared on the time-table to fill in the long gap between breakfast and the late dinner. In Doctor Johnson’s Dictionary of 1755 “Nunchin” is defined as “a piece of victuals eaten between meals” and Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. “Lunch” as “as much food as one’s хэнд can hold”. It was then, in fact, no more than a mid-day snack, but as breakfast became earlier and dinner later, lunch became a larger meal, slowly taking the place of breakfast as the meal second only to dinner for ceremony and Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. leisurely ease. During the first half of the 19th century it was fixed at 1 p.m. and was adopted by more and more people, though in 1853 the middle-class householder was warned that this meal is admissible only when either the interval between the breakfast and dinner Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. is very prolonged, or when the quantity or food taken at breakfast is very small, and as late as the turn of the century, lunch in the City tended to consist of no more than biscuits and a glass of wine.

A 16th century breakfast was a casual snack Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. with no fixed menu or social importance; but by the 18th century it was established as a weighty, lengthy meal, to which guests were regularly invited and which might last from 10 a.m. till 1 p.m. Such social breakfasts survived in Oxford and Cambridge into the present century, but in the Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. world at large breakfast tended to become earlier, and to shrink into a purely family affair. Between 1800 and 1850 it gradually got as early as 8 or 8.15 a.m., and acquired a menu of its own, different from that of any other meal.

Afternoon tea did not become habitual until the Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. 1860s, when the price of tea dropped sharply, and when improved transport мейд it easier to get about London. (London led the provinces in this as in all matters of polite behavior). By the 1880s it usually took place about 5 p.m., and was primarily for ladies. The habit Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. spread rapidly from the wealthy to the poorer. The 18th century working day ended with dinner at 3 p.m., but the Victorian business man had two periods equally devoted to work, 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. and 2 p.m. to 6 p.m. The desire to secure a Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. long working day was the main factor that affected the time-table of meals. Other factors may affect it. In Spain, for example, the heat of summer afternoons makes it convenient to have a long break in the middle of the day and to work much later in the Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. evening. The mid-day meal, therefore, is about 1.30 p.m. or 2 p.m., and the evening meal as late as 9 p.m. or 10 p.m. The wide use of sandwiches and portable snacks, the shortage of domestic help, and the rapid growth of facilities for eating out, have all Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. affected the times and nature of meals. Very many families have a late meat tea when working hours are over, and a snack for supper. But the basic pattern of four meals a day remains as it was set by the 1890s, although we probably eat no more Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено. then our 16th century ancestors did in their two meals.

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