Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык.

Контрольная работа №2

Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите письменно текст на российский язык.

Text 1. MONEY

Money is indispensable in a society in which commodity exchange takes place. In commodity exchange money plays the role of a universal equivalent, that of commodity ex­pressing the value of all the other commodities.

Gold is the Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. generally accepted money commodity. Because of its natural properties gold is the most convenient substance to carry out the social function of money. It can be easily broken into pieces and melted and «recombined» without anyloss of value. It can also be kept safely as it does not become oxidized. In addition Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. it has relatively small volume for its weight while denoting a considerable value.

Money performs a number of functions. First of all, it serves as a measure of value; that is, it is used to measure the value of all other commodities. Each commodity is sold for a Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. certain sum of money, which expresses its value. The value of a commodity in terms of money is called its price.

Money is an ideal unit for expressing the value of all other commodities. What this means is that to measure the value of commodities it is not necessary Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. to have cash. As acts of sale and purchase (i.e. the exchange of commodities for money) are repeated many times, the seller and buyer mentally equate the commodity to a certain amount of money (or gold) corre­sponding to its value.

When commodities are exchanged with the aid of Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. money, the latter also serves as a means of circulation. To perform this function money has to be real, not ideal. What is important is that anyone receiving these symbols of value must be assured that they will be accepted from him too, when he pays for other commodities. That is why Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. states declare paper money to be legal tender.

Money also serves as a means of accumulation or a way of hoarding treasures. This function stems from the fact that money can buy any commodity. Therefore, money is a universal embodiment ofwealth and a means of accumulating it. Taken out Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. of circulation, however, money becomes treasure only if it is gold, or money converted into articles of gold, silver and other precious metals or stones.

Задание 1.1. Дайте письменно эквиваленты выделенным в тексте словам.

Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на российский язык.

Text 2.WHAT IT TAKES TO RUN A BUSINESS

Most Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. of us fantasize at one time or another about starting our own business, but few of us have the courage to make it happen. The prospect of going into business for ourselves, while appealing, is a risk few of us are willing to take.

But times have changed. More people than Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. ever before are leaving their 6-figure salary jobs and starting their own businesses. In fact, experts estimate that some 1.500 new businesses are launched every day and that by 2000 70 percent of all businesses will be entrepreneurial.

Choosing the business that's right for you isprobably the most important business decision you'll ever make Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык.. Maybe you already have a great idea for a product or service. Or perhaps you're still exploring some ideas. In either case, before you launch your business you'll need to assess your strengths and weaknesses, your likes and dislikes.

It may help to make a list of Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. what you like and dislike. You'll also want to consider your non-tangible attributes, such as stamina, determination and resourcefulness. These qualities alone may be the determining factor of whetheryour business succeeds or fails.

Experts agree that two of the most important qualitiesan entrepreneur should possess Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. are tenacity and perseverance. Getting a business off the ground can be extremely frustrating, and if you're the type who gives up easily, chances are you won't make it as an entrepreneur.

As a business owner you also must have the stamina and self-discipline to work long hours Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык., the willingness to take risks and the confidence to make decisions. These traits will go a long way in helping your business thrive and flourish.

Don't worry if it takes you a while to determine what kind of business you want. It's much better to take Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. your time and thoroughly investigate your options than rush into something. Some of the most successful entrepreneurs have spent time researching the market before finding their niche.

Special training or education is not required to start a business. Only one-fifth of new business owners have college degrees and more than one Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык.-third have never taken a business course.

Much of the knowledge you'll need to run a business can be learned through books, seminars and workshops. You may also want to consider taking a few business or marking courses through your local university or community college.

One of the Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. best ways to learn about business is by talking to as many entrepreneurs as you can. Join a professional organisation in your area that is geared to your particular industry.

In addition, there are several organisations that can provide assistance. Contact your local Small Business Administration office or the Service Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. Corps of Retired Executives. Both groups can provide professional advice and counselling and help you get your business off the ground. You may also want to consider hiring a business consultantto help you build a solid business plan.

One of the most important factors you'll need to Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. consider before starting a business is your financial resources. If you are the sole provider for your family and have little savings stashed away, this may not be the time to give up a steady source of income.

Studies show that more businesses failbecause of under financing and poor Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. management than for any other reason. That's why experts say you should have enough saving put aside to support you for at least a year before you have to dip into your new business for income.

If you're having trouble raising the capital needed to launch your business, try the Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. Small Business Association. The organisation often makes small-business loans to start-up companies or at least will refer you to the institutions that will. You may also want to consider obtaining independent investors or taking out a home equity loan.

Starting a new business not only demands a Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. lot of hard work, but also requires financial and emotional sacrifice. Be prepared to give up vacations, weekends and evenings and to spend less time with friends and family. Entrepreneurship is not without drawbacks, and many people discover (often too late) that they are not cut out to run Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. a business.

Harvey Mackay, the best selling author of "Sharkproof: Get The Job You Want. Keep The Job You Love In Today's Frenzied Market " (Harper Collins), offers these suggestions for anyone considering a business venture.

· Think small. Keep your overheads low by starting your business from home Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык.. Purchase only the essentials. Hold on to your day job as long as possible or at least until your business has started to take off.

· Get advice. Talk to other entrepreneurs. Find out how they got started, how much money it took and what they would do differently. Put together an advisory team Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. that you can turn to for help.

· Adapt to change. In business, anything can happen. Be prepared for the unexpected.

· Draft a business plan. Analyze your market and study your competition. Determinewho your potential clients will be and make sure there is sufficient demand for your product Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык. or service. Set goals for your company and review them periodically to see if you're meeting your expectations.

· Depend on yourself. Whether your business succeeds or fails depends on you alone. Make sure you have the temperament to work harder than you've ever worked in your life.


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